Suboxone is a medication used to treat opioid addiction. It is a combination of buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, and naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Buprenorphine is a medication that can help reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opioid addiction. Naloxone is added to Suboxone to discourage misuse and abuse of the medication.
The use of Suboxone for addiction treatment is legal in the United States and many other countries. However, the legal status of Suboxone and other medication-assisted treatments (MAT) has been a controversial issue. In this article, we will explore the legality of using Suboxone for addiction treatment and discuss the various factors that influence its legality.
History of Suboxone
Suboxone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002 for the treatment of opioid addiction. Prior to the approval of Suboxone, methadone was the primary medication used for opioid addiction treatment. Methadone is a full opioid agonist and is highly regulated due to its potential for abuse and diversion. Suboxone was developed as an alternative to methadone that could provide similar benefits for addiction treatment with fewer risks of abuse and diversion.
Legal Status of Suboxone
Suboxone is a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in the United States. The CSA categorizes drugs into five schedules based on their potential for abuse and dependence. Schedule I drugs are considered the most dangerous with a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. Schedule V drugs have the lowest potential for abuse and are commonly used for medical purposes. Suboxone is classified as a Schedule III drug, which means it has a moderate to low potential for abuse and dependence compared to Schedule I and II drugs.
The legal status of Suboxone has been a controversial issue since its approval. Some people argue that Suboxone is just another opioid drug that can be abused and diverted. They argue that people can use Suboxone to get high or sell it on the street. Others argue that Suboxone is a safe and effective medication that can help people recover from opioid addiction. They argue that Suboxone can be an important tool in the fight against the opioid epidemic.
Suboxone can only be prescribed by a physician who has obtained a waiver from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to prescribe buprenorphine products. To obtain a waiver, a physician must complete an eight-hour training course and submit an application to SAMHSA. Once approved, the physician can prescribe Suboxone and other buprenorphine products to their patients.
The use of Suboxone and other MAT medications is supported by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) and the World Health Organization (WHO). They recommend that MAT be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that includes behavioral therapy, support groups, and other services. MAT has been shown to reduce opioid use, opioid-related overdose deaths, and criminal activity associated with opioid addiction.
Diversion of Suboxone
Diversion of Suboxone has been a concern since its approval. Diversion occurs when a drug is used for a purpose other than its intended use. For example, Suboxone can be diverted if someone sells it on the street or if it is stolen from a pharmacy. The addition of naloxone to Suboxone was intended to discourage diversion by causing withdrawal symptoms if the medication is injected or misused.
Despite these efforts, diversion of Suboxone still occurs. A study published in the Journal of Addiction Medicine found that 22% of people who used Suboxone for addiction treatment reported selling or giving away some of their medication.